8.70. Systemd-246

The systemd package contains programs for controlling the startup, running, and shutdown of the system.

Approximate build time: 2.0 SBU
Required disk space: 262 MB

8.70.1. Installation of systemd

Create a symlink to work around the xsltproc command not being installed:

ln -sf /bin/true /usr/bin/xsltproc

Set up the man pages:

tar -xf ../systemd-man-pages-246.tar.xz

Remove tests that cannot be built in chroot:

sed '177,$ d' -i src/resolve/meson.build

Remove an unneeded group, render, from the default udev rules:

sed -i 's/GROUP="render", //' rules.d/50-udev-default.rules.in

Prepare systemd for compilation:

mkdir -p build
cd       build

LANG=en_US.UTF-8                    \
meson --prefix=/usr                 \
      --sysconfdir=/etc             \
      --localstatedir=/var          \
      -Dblkid=true                  \
      -Dbuildtype=release           \
      -Ddefault-dnssec=no           \
      -Dfirstboot=false             \
      -Dinstall-tests=false         \
      -Dkmod-path=/bin/kmod         \
      -Dldconfig=false              \
      -Dmount-path=/bin/mount       \
      -Drootprefix=                 \
      -Drootlibdir=/lib             \
      -Dsplit-usr=true              \
      -Dsulogin-path=/sbin/sulogin  \
      -Dsysusers=false              \
      -Dumount-path=/bin/umount     \
      -Db_lto=false                 \
      -Drpmmacrosdir=no             \
      -Dhomed=false                 \
      -Duserdb=false                \
      -Dman=true                    \

The meaning of the meson options:


These switches provide the location of binaries needed by systemd at runtime that have not yet been installed.


This switch turns off the experimental DNSSEC support.


This switch prevents installation of systemd services responsible for setting up the system for the first time. They are not useful for LFS because everything is done manually.


This switch prevents installation of the compiled tests.


This switch prevents installation of a systemd unit that runs ldconfig at boot, which is not useful for source distributions such as LFS and makes the boot time longer. Remove it if the described feature is desired.


These switches ensure that core programs and shared libraries are installed in subdirectories of the root partition.


This switch ensures that systemd will work on systems where /bin, /lib and /sbin directories are not symlinks to their /usr counterparts.


This switch prevents installation of systemd services responsible for setting up the /etc/group and /etc/passwd files. Both files were created earlier in this chapter.


This switch disables installation of RPM Macros for use with systemd because LFS does not support RPM.


Remove two daemons that have dependencies that do not fit the scope of LFS.

Compile the package:

LANG=en_US.UTF-8 ninja

Install the package:

LANG=en_US.UTF-8 ninja install

Remove an unnecessary symbolic link:

rm -f /usr/bin/xsltproc

Create the /etc/machine-id file needed by systemd-journald:


Setup the basic target structure:

systemctl preset-all

Disable a service that is known to cause problems with systems that use a network configuration other than what is provided by systemd-networkd:

systemctl disable systemd-time-wait-sync.service

Prevent systemd from resetting the maximum PID value which causes some problems with packages and units in BLFS:

rm -f /usr/lib/sysctl.d/50-pid-max.conf

8.70.2. Contents of systemd

Installed programs: bootctl, busctl, coredumpctl, halt (symlink to systemctl), hostnamectl, init, journalctl, kernel-install, localectl, loginctl, machinectl, networkctl, portablectl, poweroff (symlink to systemctl), reboot (symlink to systemctl), resolvconf (symlink to resolvectl), resolvectl, runlevel (symlink to systemctl), shutdown (symlink to systemctl), systemctl, systemd-analyze, systemd-ask-password, systemd-cat, systemd-cgls, systemd-cgtop, systemd-delta, systemd-detect-virt, systemd-escape, systemd-hwdb, systemd-id128, systemd-inhibit, systemd-machine-id-setup, systemd-mount, systemd-notify, systemd-nspawn, systemd-path, systemd-repart, systemd-resolve (symlink to resolvectl), systemd-run, systemd-socket-activate, systemd-stdio-bridge, systemd-tmpfiles, systemd-tty-ask-password-agent, systemd-umount (symlink to systemd-mount), telinit (symlink to systemctl), timedatectl, and udevadm
Installed libraries: libnss_myhostname.so.2, libnss_mymachines.so.2, libnss_resolve.so.2, libnss_systemd.so.2, libsystemd.so, libsystemd-shared-246.so (in /lib/systemd), and libudev.so
Installed directories: /etc/binfmt.d, /etc/init.d, /etc/kernel, /etc/modules-load.d, /etc/sysctl.d, /etc/systemd, /etc/tmpfiles.d, /etc/udev, /etc/xdg/systemd, /lib/systemd, /lib/udev, /usr/include/systemd, /usr/lib/binfmt.d, /usr/lib/environment.d, /usr/lib/kernel, /usr/lib/modules-load.d, /usr/lib/sysctl.d, /usr/lib/systemd, /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d, /usr/share/doc/systemd-246, /usr/share/factory, /usr/share/systemd, /var/lib/systemd, and /var/log/journal

Short Descriptions


Is used to query the firmware and boot manager settings


Is used to introspect and monitor the D-Bus bus


Is used to retrieve coredumps from the systemd journal


Normally invokes shutdown with the -h option, except when already in run-level 0, then it tells the kernel to halt the system; it notes in the file /var/log/wtmp that the system is being brought down


Is used to query and change the system hostname and related settings


Is the first process to be started when the kernel has initialized the hardware which takes over the boot process and starts all processes according to its configuration files. In this case, it starts systemd.


Is used to query the contents of the systemd journal


Is used to add and remove kernel and initramfs images to and from /boot. In LFS, this is done manually.


Is used to query and change the system locale and keyboard layout settings


Is used to introspect and control the state of the systemd Login Manager


Is used to introspect and control the state of the systemd Virtual Machine and Container Registration Manager


Is used to introspect and configure the state of the network links configured by systemd-networkd


Is used to attach or detach portable services from the local system


Instructs the kernel to halt the system and switch off the computer (see halt)


Instructs the kernel to reboot the system (see halt)


Registers DNS server and domain configuration with systemd-resolved


Sends control commands to the network name resolution manager, or resolves domain names, IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, DNS records, and services.


Outputs the previous and the current run-level, as noted in the last run-level record in /var/run/utmp


Brings the system down in a safe and secure manner, signaling all processes and notifying all logged-in users


Is used to introspect and control the state of the systemd system and service manager


Is used to determine system startup performance of the current boot, as well as identify troublesome systemd units


Is used to query a system password or passphrase from the user, using a question message specified on the command line


Is used to connect the STDOUT and STDERR outputs of a process with the systemd journal.


Recursively shows the contents of the selected Linux control group hierarchy in a tree


Shows the top control groups of the local Linux control group hierarchy, ordered by their CPU, memory and disk I/O load


Is used to identify and compare configuration files in /etc that override default counterparts in /usr


Detects whether the system is being run in a virtual environment, and adjusts udev accordingly.


Is used to escape strings for inclusion in systemd unit names


Is used to manage the hardware database (hwdb)


Generates and prints id128 strings


Is used to execute a program with a shutdown, sleep or idle inhibitor lock taken, preventing an action such as a system shutdown until the process is completed.


Is used by system installer tools to initialize the machine ID stored in /etc/machine-id at install time with a randomly generated ID


Is used to temporarily mount or automount disks.


Is used by daemon scripts to notify the init system about status changes


Is used to run a command or OS in a light-weight namespace container


Is used to query system and user paths


Is used to grow and add partitions to a partition table when systemd is used in an OS image (e.g. a container).


Is used to resolve domain names, IPV4 and IPv6 addresses, DNS resource records, and services


Is used to create and start a transient .service or a .scope unit and run the specified command in it. This is useful for validating systemd units.


Is used to listen on socket devices and launch a process upon a successful connection to the socket.


Creates, deletes and cleans up volatile and temporary files and directories, based on the configuration file format and location specified in tmpfiles.d directories


Unmounts mount points


Is used to list and/or process pending systemd password requests


Tells init which run-level to change to


Is used to query and change the system clock and its settings


Is a generic udev administration tool which controls the udevd daemon, provides info from the Udev hardware database, monitors uevents, waits for uevents to finish, tests udev configuration, and triggers uevents for a given device


Is the main systemd utility library


Is a library to access Udev device information